Over the last decade, mobile instant messaging applications have radically transformed human communication. In addition to affordances offered by short message service (or text messaging), cross-platform mobile applications such as WhatsApp enable users to send and receive location information, record and distribute voice messages, and share video and images as well as documents and contacts in real time at no cost. Over time, WhatsApp has evolved into more than just a messaging system by adding features such as voice calls, video calls, and group calls to individuals and groups of friends.

When launched in May 2009, the application was intended only for interpersonal communication. The application was created by WhatsApp Inc. based in California, which was bought by Facebook in 2014. Since 2014, the app has ...

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