With an estimated population of 233 million people as of July 2020, Pakistan is the second largest Muslim-majority country in the world. While over 96% of the population practices Islam, all four provinces, Punjab, Sindh, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, and Baluchistan, feature remarkable ethnic and cultural diversity. Such diversity contributes to the diversity of opinion and expression when it comes to journalism and media practices in Pakistan, which, geographically, is slightly less than twice the size of California.

With approximately 3,000 privately owned newspapers and over 159 national, foreign news, and current affairs television channels, Pakistani media cater to the needs of citizens across the four provinces of the country. Two provinces, Punjab and Sindh, along with the federal capital, Islamabad, dominate the mass media landscape of the ...

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