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Cultural, linguistic, and ethnic diversity is the rule rather than the exception in most countries of the world. Within such intergroup settings, people have a tendency to favor members of their own group relative to outgroup members. This ingroup favoritism effect is not only expressed in the more positive evaluation of ingroup than of outgroup members (ethnocentrism) but also in the allocation of more resources to ingroup than to outgroup members (discrimination). For critical resources such as jobs, promotions, and housing, discrimination has profound psychological impact, particularly when its victims are targeted because of their category ascriptions based on cultural background, ethnicity, language, social class, or gender. Being the victim of discrimination can undermine not only one’s personal self-esteem but also one’s social identity as ...

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