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Simulations and games are useful for expediting intercultural competence. They have been used in intercultural training programs since the early 1970s, when the Albatross simulation was developed by the School for International Training, and BaFa BaFa was created by R. Garry Shirts for the U.S. Navy. This entry will define simulations, clarify the purpose and function of simulations in training, and suggest resources.


For the purposes of training for intercultural competence, simulations model a slice of life, not every bit of it. Simulations can be extremely realistic models, such as the cockpit of a plane for pilot training. But for intercultural training, less realism is necessary, largely because when the goal is to give the trainee a total immersion experience in a specific culture, it is ...

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