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People are, in part, products of their culture, and most cultures are ethnocentric, believing that their own way is the true way of viewing reality. Therefore, it is natural to resist changes that seem to conflict with one’s perspective of reality, especially when someone tries to impose such a change. Yet within large national cultures, such as China or Brazil, many ethnic cultural realities are at play, and cultural beliefs and habits will conflict at times.

For instance, traditionally in the United States, the cultures of most organizations were established by the Euro-American men who founded and led them. Participants from minority cultures were required to fit in as best they could. Increasingly, since the 1970s, U.S. organizations have become more diverse at all levels, with ...

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