After a review of the concept race, this entry first defines institutional racism, followed by selected examples of institutional racism as it has occurred around the world, supplemented by commentary on why it is highly resistant to efforts intended to reduce or eliminate it. The entry concludes by describing the key elements required to bring an end to institutional racism.


While the terms racism and racial are used in this entry, they are used as common terms consistent with public discourse about these topics. Race as a biological variable does not exist. It is primarily a social concept that is very difficult to define. Racial designations cannot be consistently determined using names, appearance, national origin, or nonverbal cues.


When a practice or policy results in discrimination ...

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