Quantitative research methods are generally used for developing and testing social science theory that explains the influence of culture on communication processes and outcomes. When designing a quantitative study, in addition to ethics and analysis, the following areas should be considered: measurement, research design, and sampling, which this entry will briefly explore. Quantitative methods are generally used to test theorized causal relationships between constructs, or variables; in other words, how does one construct—or variable— bring about change in another? The first step to testing theory is to determine what the constructs are, how they relate to one another, and how those constructs are to be measured.


In cross-cultural studies, culture is usually one of the primary constructs, often defined by national origin or ethnicity and usually ...

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