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Intercultural competence has a rich history of positivistic research, especially in the discipline of communication, where it is subsumed under the area of intercultural communication. Speaking for this area as a whole, positivistic research (based on the premise that positive knowledge is necessarily based on a scientific, empirical—and largely quantitative—approach to phenomena) was highly popular at least until the mid-1990s, but at the turn of the century, a rapid paradigm shift from quantitative to qualitative became evident. The qualitative movement can be seen by the popularity of critical studies, which now dominate conference presentations in the intercultural division of major communication associations. However, empirical studies are still important, especially in separating the universal facets of communication competence from the culture-specific ones, quantitatively comparing these facets ...

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