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Scholars, theorists, researchers, teachers, and practitioners have during recent decades been framing international education in two very different ways. Until recently, the dominant account for both secondary and higher education closely associated the term with internationalization, describing how cross-national activities and strategies (education abroad, international student advising, international exchange agreements, etc.) provide students with structured opportunities to learn the knowledge and acquire the skills they will presumably need to compete in an increasingly globalized world. A second account is supplanting the first, challenging the assumption that internationalization activities and strategies, in and of themselves, adequately prepare students for life after graduation. This newer account, self-reflective and epistemological, positions internationalization as the second of three paradigms that have informed international education theory and practice during the ...

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