Healthcare refers to medical services that trained and licensed health professionals offer to individuals for preventing, treating, and managing illnesses and promoting physical and mental well-being. Usually, individuals can access healthcare at hospitals, a family doctor’s office, or community health centers. Interpersonal aspects of healthcare, such as healthcare provider–receiver interactions, can shape healthcare outcomes such as medication compliance, diet, exercise, weight management, and reduction in alcohol consumption.

Today’s increasing ethnically, culturally, and linguistically diverse populations around the world present unique challenges to the practice of healthcare. When healthcare providers and receivers cannot communicate effectively because of cultural and linguistic barriers, ineffective healthcare will likely follow. For example, non-English-speaking parents may end up at the emergency department with their very sick infant because of incorrect medication dosing, ...

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