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Ethical Issues in Research, History of

Ethics are the guiding principles of how a society should behave, and although they should not be confused with laws, they are the foundation on which laws are both created and enforced. Laws can be seen as the codification of ethics; however, whereas laws carry with them the ability to punish those in violation, ethics do not. One acts ethically in part because of an internal desire to act toward others in a manner that one wishes to be acted on by others. The need to protect human subjects involved in research came to prominence at the end of World War II. Since then, a variety of ethical codes of behaviors and laws have been constructed by various associations and countries to ensure that researchers ...

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