Enuresis, or bedwetting, is nocturnal incontinence while asleep in a child aged 5 years or older. Historically, enuresis was considered a maturational and developmental disorder, although the evidence was indirect. Major attention was given to psychological factors causing enuresis. This phase was followed by two decades of focus on pure organic causes, namely, a mismatch between nocturnal urine production and functional bladder volume, studied in children who did not wake up. As a result, enuresis was no longer considered as a developmental disorder. However, recent findings demonstrated a relationship with sleep problems, abnormal 24-hour rhythms of several physical functions, and a high prevalence of psychological problems such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). These parameters are all related to central neurotransmitters and bring back the relevance of ...

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