Dyslexia is a specific learning disorder that significantly impacts the individual’s ability to acquire reading skills in spite of adequate instruction and intellectual ability. In contrast to normal readers, who develop the ability to read over the course of childhood, for children who have developmental dyslexia, there are differences in brain development that result in reading difficulties that typically persist, at least at some level, into adulthood. Developmental dyslexia is associated with a “hallmark” difficulty in phonological decoding skills that are required for reading. Difficulties acquiring this complex skill vary across individuals and, moreover, manifest differently across the developmental period and into adulthood. Children with developmental dyslexia, for example, require specialized reading instruction to address their difficulties. The nature and timing of this type of ...

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