Down Syndrome: Cognitive, Emotional, and Behavioral Presentation

Down syndrome is a chromosomal disorder that is most commonly due to a third copy of the 21st chromosome. The presence of an additional whole chromosome accounts for Down syndrome being a biologically complex disorder that potentially affects all medical systems in the body. The additional chromosome accounts for the multiple genes that can impact cognitive development and complicate any biological intervention for improving cognitive function.

Individuals with Down syndrome almost universally have intellectual disability and are at increased risk for behavior problems. These are in a complex biological system with medical disorders possible in all systems of the body. The medical problems can cause or exacerbate the cognitive and behavioral problems. This entry discusses the incidence of Down syndrome, then reviews the cognitive, social, ...

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