Depressogenic Conditions

Depressive illnesses are characterized by a persistently sad or irritable mood, and anhedonia, described as markedly diminished interest or pleasure in most activities. Additional impairments include sleep disturbance, weight loss or gain, low energy, reduced concentration, psychomotor slowing or agitation, and recurrent thoughts of death or suicidal ideation. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) contains diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD) and other depressogenic conditions, with MDD being the most commonly studied in individuals with intellectual disability. MDD is characterized by a 2-week period of either depressed mood or anhedonia, at least four of the accompanying symptoms discussed earlier, and impaired functioning in social, occupational, or other domains. Although the DSM-5 describes other depressive disorders—including disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, ...

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