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Depression

Individuals with intellectual or developmental disabilities (ID/DD) are at risk for experiencing depression, though there are challenges in accurately diagnosing depression among individuals with these disabilities because of differences in symptom presentations, difficulties with self-reports of depressive symptoms, and differential sensitivity of typically used assessment instruments. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), major depressive disorder is characterized by experiencing at least five of the following nine symptoms more days than not for at least 2 weeks: (1) depressed or irritable mood, (2) anhedonia or difficulty enjoying things that had been found pleasurable, (3) significant weight loss or gain, (4) insomnia or hypersomnia, (5) psychomotor agitation or retardation, (6) fatigue, (7) excessive guilt or worthlessness, (8) difficulty concentrating, and ...

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