The cerebellum (“little brain” in Latin) is a structure of the brain located at the back of the skull, outside of the cerebral cortex, whose primary function has traditionally been viewed as motor coordination and control. However, emerging evidence suggests that the cerebellum may also play important roles in modulating cognitive and affective behavioral output in addition to motor output. This entry presents a brief overview of cerebellar anatomy, impairments related to cerebellar disruption, and theories regarding cerebellar functions.


The cerebellum makes up 10% of the brain’s volume but contains over 50% of its neurons. It comprises the deep cerebellar nuclei, which are encased by the cerebellar cortex. The cerebellar cortex has three layers of elaborately folded gray matter that are composed of excitatory afferent ...

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