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Apraxia

Apraxia of speech is a neurologically based motor planning disorder, characterized by difficulty coordinating and sequencing movements of the jaw, lips, tongue, and vocal chords for precise speech production, intonation, and rhythm of speech in the absence of neuromuscular deficits. Individuals with apraxia know what they want to say but are unable to coordinate muscle movements to produce intelligible speech sounds. The severity may range from mild (minimally impaired speech) to severe (absences of speech production). In adults, apraxia is typically acquired through stroke, head injury, or illness affecting the neurological system.

For children with apraxia, the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) prefers the term childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). The etiology of CAS is often unknown. In both congenital and acquired cases, the disorder may be ...

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