Over the last several decades, researchers and clinicians have increased their understanding of how trauma impacts individuals. After learning that emotional trauma can have lifelong impact in the form of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), researchers also realized that various stressors can impact not only mental but physical health. Researchers are now beginning to study the influence of trauma on the expression of genes, a concept known as epigenetics. In response to this, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration (SAMSA) has developed guidelines for organizations and individual care providers to hopefully improve care for both trauma patients and those who look after them. This entry discusses the broad effects of trauma on individuals, including those with intellectual and developmental disorders. This entry also discusses current ...

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