Specific phobias are significant, persistent fears or anxieties regarding particular objects or situations that are out of proportion to the danger posed by the stimulus. Specific phobias are classified as anxiety disorders. While phobias can develop in relation to anything, common phobia categories include animals (e.g., spiders, snakes), the natural environment (e.g., tornadoes, heights), situations (e.g., airplanes, tunnels), or blood-injection-injury (e.g., needles, invasive medical procedures). Phobias can develop at any age. Exposure-based cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) is a very effective treatment for phobias. This approach is increasingly being adapted and used to treat people with developmental and intellectual disorders. This entry examines the prevalence, development, and treatment of phobias and their specific impact on individuals with intellectual and developmental disorders.

Prevalence of Phobias

The prevalence rate of ...

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