Probiotics are defined by the Food and Agricultural Organization and the World Health Organization as live microorganisms, which when administered in adequate amounts, may bring about a beneficial health effect on the host. The term probiotics is the antonym of antibiotics and was introduced by Daniel Lilly and Rosalie Stillwell in 1965 referring to the substances produced by microorganisms that encourage the growth of other microorganisms. The word probiotic, meaning “for life” in Latin, has been used in reference to bacteria associated with useful effects on humans and animals. The bacteria in yogurt and fermented milk products constitute the most common source of probiotics for humans. The popularity of probiotics in recent years has generated interest in studying their underlying role in various gastrointestinal and ...

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