Prenatal risk factors focus on the use of illicit drugs, alcohol, or cigarettes by a woman during pregnancy and the subsequent effects on her newborn. In the United States, approximately 4.3% of pregnant women use illicit drugs, 18% use tobacco, and 12% use alcohol; cigarettes and marijuana are the two most common substances used by pregnant women. An interesting finding is that for pregnant women who quit using substances during pregnancy, they infrequently cease their use of nicotine.

An estimated 20% of infants in the United States are prenatally exposed to substances, and about 6 million children live in households where parents use such substances routinely. Additionally, about two thirds of women who used drugs during pregnancy continue to do so after pregnancy, and this use ...

  • Loading...
locked icon

Sign in to access this content

Get a 30 day FREE TRIAL

  • Watch videos from a variety of sources bringing classroom topics to life
  • Read modern, diverse business cases
  • Explore hundreds of books and reference titles