Obesity has long-term metabolic and cardiovascular comorbidities, as well as negative cognitive effects including executive dysfunctions. The prevalence of extreme levels of obesity in individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (ID/DD) is higher than in their typically developing peers. Several factors contribute to the obesogenic environment, or the environment that promotes weight gain and is antagonistic to weight loss. These elements include the influences of demographic and biological features, social and cultural aspects, physical environments, behaviors related to food intake and physical activities, and health outcomes. This environment can be cyclical, may differentially affect individuals with ID/DD, and affects health care systems. Policies controlling access to healthy food choices and outlets for physical activity also influence health outcomes. This entry discusses obesity in individuals with ...

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