Memory refers to the diverse set of capabilities that allow one to use information from the past in the present. The term memory refers to multiple concepts including the location where information is stored (e.g., “He searched his memory”), the processes that allow one to remember information from the past (e.g., “I’ve got a great memory for faces”), and the information itself (e.g., “It was one of his earliest memories”). As a fundamental cognitive process, memory skills are often impaired in many intellectual and developmental disorders. Understanding typical memory function and development can help educators, practitioners, and researchers recognize and comprehend abnormal memory functioning. This entry describes how information enters, is stored, and leaves memory; the various types of memory; and memory development in typically ...

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