Quantitative research approaches increase knowledge by gathering data in a numerical form that then can be manipulated mathematically to reveal regularities and patterns that otherwise might be difficult to detect. This makes it possible to address a wide variety of research questions, including assessments of the meanings of psychological concepts, their levels and variability, as well as the relationships among them. Quantitative research approaches are often contrasted with qualitative approaches, which tend to collect data expressed in nonmathematical, symbolic representations and to place less focus on estimating the strength and form of relationships.

The data associated with quantitative approaches can result from simple measurement operations such as counts or categorizations or from more complex operations that may involve the creation of measurement scales that function ...

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