The terms optimism and pessimism refer to the tendencies of people to expect that good things will happen and to expect that bad things will happen, respectively. Persons who believe that their goals can be achieved despite difficulties they might encounter are said to hold an optimistic view. They are predisposed to think that they will be able to manage and resolve any of these challenges. Pessimism is the general tendency to expect negative outcomes. Pessimists are predisposed to think about the potential negative outcomes of whatever problems, setbacks, challenges, or difficulties are placed in their way.

To date, optimistic and pessimistic expectations have been found to predict success. Regardless of job or level in an organization, individuals encounter many “curveballs,” changes, obstacles, difficulties, and adversities ...

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