Motherhood penalty and fatherhood bonus are two terms used to describe the disparity in treatment and pay faced by mothers and fathers in the workplace. Working mothers are often perceived as less competent, less committed, less dependable, and generally less qualified than fathers and childless men and women. They are also paid less and are less likely to be hired or promoted than their counterparts. The opposite holds true for working fathers. They are generally perceived as being more competent, more committed, and more qualified, and they earn higher salaries than their childless counterparts and mothers. The collective benefits enjoyed by fathers have been termed the fatherhood bonus, while the difficulties faced by mothers have been termed the motherhood penalty.

The differential perception and treatment of ...

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