Employee morale refers to employees’ shared attitudes toward and identification with the elements of their jobs, working conditions, fellow workers, supervisors, and general management. As a group-level concept, morale is akin to the affective climate of an organization. Morale is a term that is often used loosely by professionals and laypeople and is often equated with intrinsic job satisfaction averaged across a work group, a department, or an organization, although more technical definitions do exist. Most definitions treat morale as a summary evaluation of a broad range of job-related attitudes (e.g., employee engagement, organizational commitment, employee loyalty, organizational identification, job involvement, employee well-being). Whereas some of the evaluations an employee expresses toward an organization are unique to himself or herself, members of one’s work group ...

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