Almost all efforts of managers and human resources consultants have the objective of improving individual employee job performance, either directly or indirectly. Efforts such as personnel selection and training are aimed at improving performance directly, whereas interventions in other organizational processes attempt to improve performance indirectly (e.g., interventions directed at culture, climate, or team processes aim to improve job performance by reducing conflict and increasing coordination across organizational members). The popular press is full of anecdotes of top executives who have lost their jobs because of incompetence in performing them. Given this state of organizational research and practice, it is necessary to have a clear understanding of what job performance is and the issues involved in its measurement. Job performance models have been developed ...

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