The confluence of dynamic external (socioeconomic, business, military, legal, technology) and internal forces (individuals, theories, research, applications) transformed the science and practice of industrial and organizational (I-O) psychology from the foresights of a few individuals into a legitimate scientific and applied discipline. Throughout the evolution, an underlying theme persisted: the study and use of psychology for improving the workplace and work lives. As early as 1913, Hugo Münsterberg advocated that the purpose of a new applied psychology was to connect laboratory science with the problems of business.

The Roots: Late 19th Century

The birth of an applied psychology, then labeled business psychology, economic psychology, or industrial psychology, was linked to the inception of psychology as a scientific discipline at the end of the 19th century. I-O ...

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