Employee engagement generally refers to a positive, work-related motivational state. Most observers view engagement as an active psychological state characterized by emotional and cognitive elements. As a state, it is something that an individual experiences psychologically (and possibly physiologically) over a finite time period, and it is subject to fluctuation in its perceived intensity. This experience includes high-energy positive emotions such as vigor and enthusiasm, as well as a deep level of focus on and attention to one’s work. Moreover, engagement connotes action—engaged employees immerse themselves in their work, expend high levels of effort, and are generally considered to be highly productive members of the organization.

Engagement has become a popular subject in research and especially in practice for those specializing in employee surveys and organization ...

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