The dominant tradition for understanding and measuring personality in applied psychology has emphasized the explicit aspects or components of personality. These components are typically measured via self-assessment using paper-and-pencil or online questionnaires. The targets of assessment are the conscious (i.e., introspectively available) self-evaluations on any number of personality traits (e.g., Big Five taxonomy of personality). A second tradition has emphasized the implicit (i.e., unconscious) components of personality. The targets of assessment for this tradition have been implicit motives, latent needs, and even more fundamental defense mechanisms. By definition, these components of personality are not available for self-assessment because they operate outside of conscious awareness (i.e., an individual cannot introspect on things about which he or she is unaware). Instead, implicit personality must be assessed using ...

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