Bullying is generally understood to be negative acts directed at a person as an individual. As a type of aggressive behavior, bullying is characterized by negative verbal and nonverbal communication carried out with the intent to harm. These negative acts are repeated, systematic, and designed to elicit negative effects, whether they are psychological or physiological. Traditionally studied in the school context, bullying has been identified by negative acts that are as direct as punching or teasing and as indirect as social exclusion or social isolation. In the workplace, however, bullying tends to be less physical and direct and more subtle and indirect, often taking the form of verbal behavior that is not likely to reveal the intent of the perpetrator(s). Such actions typically escape recognition; ...

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