Bayesian statistics is an approach to data analysis that is fundamentally different from what is typically used within industrial and organizational (I-O) psychology. In the past decade, the use of Bayesian methods has spread so much throughout many diverse scientific disciplines that it is often called the “Bayesian revolution.” Why is this shift occurring? And what is unique about Bayesian data analysis? This entry seeks to offer answers to these questions, and in doing so provides an introduction to Bayesian data analysis, its key terms and concepts, and its position in empirical research.

Understanding the Bayesian Process

At their basic level, Bayesian methods are founded on Bayes’ theorem, a simple probability rule developed in the 16th century by Thomas Bayes. Conceptually, Bayes’ theorem is quite straightforward: It ...

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