The discipline of organizational behavior focuses on the study of organizations and the people who populate them. Generally and historically, the field has been largely divided into those who study the attributes of organizations and their markets (macro organizational behavior) and those who study the attributes of people in organizations (micro organizational behavior). Typically, macro approaches have focused on explaining organizational performance and draw their intellectual heritage from sociology and economics, whereas micro approaches have focused on explaining and predicting individual behavior and performance and draw their heritage from psychology. Although the recent history of organizational behavior has seen attempts to integrate these two paradigms, the micro and macro distinction has led to a scholarly division with two largely nonoverlapping, independent literatures. As a consequence, ...

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