Affirmative action has been one of the most controversial public policies since its adoption in 1965. A conceptual definition of affirmative action is any measure, beyond a simple termination of discriminatory practice, adopted to correct for past or present discrimination or to prevent discrimination from recurring in the future. In practice, organizational affirmative action programs (AAPs) can and do encompass a multitude of actions. These actions are shaped by federal, state, and local laws and regulations. Although some educational institutions apply affirmative action to student admissions and many countries have corresponding laws and regulations, this entry is limited to workplace affirmative action in the United States.

Legal Issues

Affirmative action law in the United States is determined jointly by the U.S. Constitution, legislative acts, executive orders, and ...

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