Workplace incivility refers to behaviors that people experience at work that are rude and discourteous and generally go against norms for mutual respect and dignity. Examples of incivility include being berated for an action in which one played no part, being excluded from a meeting, and having one’s credibility undermined in front of others, as well as neglecting to greet one another, interrupting others while speaking, failing to return borrowed supplies, and spreading rumors and gossiping. Incivility is considered to be a subset of counterproductive work behavior (CWB), employee deviance, and workplace aggression. However, incivility only includes behaviors that are relatively mild (e.g., verbal, passive, and indirect), whereas CWB, deviance, and aggression also include behaviors that are physical, active, and direct. Although incivility is less ...

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