In its simplest form, turnover refers to people leaving organizations. Refinements in the measurement and definition of turnover have led researchers to consider the voluntariness, avoidability, and functionality of turnover. Voluntary turnover refers to situations in which employees have an opportunity to remain with their employer but choose to leave. Involuntary turnover refers to situations where employees do not have a choice concerning continued employment, such as employer-initiated termination. Turnover has been conceptualized as avoidable when the reasons for leaving are related to the organization (e.g., low pay, long hours) and unavoidable when reasons are not work related (e.g., spouse relocation, family demands). Finally, turnover that benefits the organization, such as when high performers stay and low performers leave, has been termed functional turnover, whereas ...

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