Subconscious motivation is simultaneously one of the earliest as well as one of the most recently developed areas of psychology, and as such, its conceptualizations have varied widely over time. Perhaps the most notable early psychologist to explore the subconscious and unconscious realms was Sigmund Freud. His model on unconscious constructs (the id, ego, and superego) that drive behavior has long shaped perceptions about psychological processes occurring outside awareness. Freud’s ideas held that the id houses basic instinctual drives to experience pleasure and avoid pain. In contrast, the superego operates in accordance with values and ideals (e.g., moral code). Between the id and the superego lies the ego, which functions in part to suppress the expression of the id’s desires. While Freud’s model served as ...

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