Research methods are many and varied, and ideally, the choice is guided primarily by the nature of the problem to be studied. With respect to participants, research can be carried out on individuals (single-case studies) or groups. The latter may involve a single group or multiple groups (at least two: experimental and control). They can be further classified as between-subject/group or within-subject/group studies. With respect to type of data, there are quantitative (numerical data), qualitative (textual data), and mixed methods, which may be applied to nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio, or other type of scales. Number of variables will determine whether the study uses single-variable (one independent variable) or factorial (at least two independent variables) design. Based on the criterion of amount of control the design ...

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