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Esophageal and Tracheoesophageal Speech

Total laryngectomy is a surgical procedure in which the entire larynx is removed, most commonly because of advanced laryngeal cancer. Total laryngectomy involves the removal of the hyoid bone, all of the structures of the larynx, the strap muscles, and the upper two or three tracheal rings. Since surgery requires the permanent, complete diversion of the airway to an opening in the neck (referred to as a tracheostoma or stoma), there is no longer any connection between the lungs and the mouth or nose. The removal of the larynx and the diversion of the airway mean that the vibratory source for phonation is absent and individuals must learn a method of alaryngeal voice if they are to regain verbal communication. All three alaryngeal methods, namely, ...

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