Aging is accompanied by a decline in various cognitive abilities. Global changes in the aging brain are concerned with neurons and their connections. Functional neuroimaging studies demonstrate that distinctive feature of the aging brain are related to white and gray matter. The reduction in white matter volume is attributable in part to age-related loss and changes in myelin. Age-related losses in gray matter are presented in the fronto-parietal cortex, insula, and cerebellum. This generalized reduction in structural integrity of white and gray matter is associated with deterioration of cognition.

Aging is associated with multiple declines in cognitive ability such as working memory and executive functions, slowed processing, and auditory system changes. Older adults generally show poorer performance on simple span tasks than younger adults. This leads ...

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