Causation, or causality, accounts for an inferred relationship between variables, such that the occurrence of one, called the cause or independent variable, results in the occurrence of another, its effect or dependent variable. Causation relationships obey strict constraints, often disregarded in everyday uses of the word cause and its cognates or synonyms. Knowledge of these constraints is crucial in Speech–Language clinical settings, where the presence of an effect (e.g., dyslalia) can be explained by a cause proven to associate with it (e.g., an anatomical configuration).

Establishing causes constitutes the first step to finding solutions to a clinical condition, in that manipulation or elimination of the cause treats or eradicates the condition, respectively. This entry discusses causal relationships in making clinical decisions, constraints on inferring causes, ...

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