Re-establishing the intricate balance between the respiratory and phonatory systems is the physiological goal of breathing exercises. The respiratory system functions through maintaining homeostasis in the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. The larynx serves the dual purpose of regulating flows into and out of the lungs for respiration and regulating the exhalatory flows through the vocal folds for voice and cough. This entry describes physiological factors to consider when designing breathing exercises and offers exercises for speaking and singing and for upper airway breathing.

Physiological Factors

Inefficient patterns of respiration are often developed in response to respiratory disease, neuromuscular dysfunction, muscular imbalance, vocal fold pathology, irritable larynx, and cough. These conditions may result in increased mean flow rate due to incomplete glottal closure; reduced strength, speed, ...

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