Bilingual education refers to the engagement of two languages as a medium of instruction and assessment in educational settings and aims to promote bilingualism and biliteracy in those languages. Having the potential to shape bilingualism, the challenge faced by bilingual education is to effectively assess linguistic, crosslinguistic, and cross-cultural differences in bilingualism to develop pedagogical, assessment, and curricula practices that value and sustain these differences.

Similar to bilingualism that springs from interaction in society as a normal human communicative behavior, the extent and effectiveness of bilingual education is affected by socioeconomic and political forces that guide policymaking. As a result, there is extensive variation in the existing bilingual education policies and programs around the world. Bilingual education is closely associated with the linguistic and cultural properties ...

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