It is now well established that developmental stuttering is associated with a range of behavioral and psychological outcomes across the life course. This entry focuses on the range of problems that have been identified to follow early-onset stuttering.

Behavioral Effects

Bullying and Exclusion

Children who stutter experience bullying at alarming rates. This is particularly troubling since bullying is strongly associated with anxiety and anxiety disorders in later life. Further, there is evidence that for individuals who stutter the bullying and exclusion may begin as early as 3 years of age and continue across their life. The origins of this bullying may relate to the early stereotyping of stuttered speech by children who do not stutter. Certainly, nonstuttering children have been shown to negatively evaluate stuttering. Given this, it ...

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