Speech–language pathology and therapy is the scientific study and treatment of impairments, disorders, and abnormalities of:

  • speech, voice, and fluency; phonological difficulties; and developmental speech disorders;
  • language disturbances, such as aphasia or delayed language acquisition;
  • communication issues, such as those found in individuals with Asperger’s syndrome; and
  • swallowing.

It is a field of expertise practiced by clinicians called Speech–Language pathologists, speech and language therapists, or speech therapists, who specialize in evaluating, diagnosing, and treating these problems, whether developmental or acquired later in life. In many European countries, people who specialize in this area are called logopediatricians, which has its roots in teaching. A phoniatrician is a person who specializes in the physiology, acoustics, and perception of speech. These individuals may have a background in medicine.

The profession of speech and language ...

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