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Prosody

Prosody is the melody and rhythm of speech. It is suprasegmental in nature, meaning it relates to the features of an utterance that are above the phonological level (i.e., consonants, vowels). Prosody conveys a wide range of information in the speech signal, including linguistic and affective, meaning differences. The primary prosodic components consist of speech melody (or intonation), phrasing distinctions, lexical stress, phrase-level accentuation, rhythm, and tempo. Linguistic prosody may express lexical stress or tone distinctions, semantic form (e.g., declarative, interrogative), pragmatic intent, syntactic structure, and information about emphasis, focus, or contrast. Affective prosody conveys emotional information via the speech signal (e.g., sadness, happiness). Changes in prosody can also be used to express sarcasm or irony. Not all languages employ prosody and express meaning differences ...

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