Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) may be categorized as closed or penetrating. A closed head injury (CHI) occurs when the brain is injured as a result of a blow to the head or a forceful movement resulting in the brain bouncing against the inner skull. A penetrating head injury (PHI) follows the penetration of a projectile through the skull and meninges, the membranes (dura mater, arachnoid, pia mater) that enclose the brain. This topic has become increasingly important because of the relatively high incidence of TBI throughout the world and its association with sports, war, and everyday activities such as driving. Consequently, professionals who evaluate and treat individuals with communication disorders in clinics, schools, and medical settings are encountering persons with TBI on a regular ...

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