James Parkinson is credited with writing the first clear medical description of Parkinson’s disease (PD) in 1817. In his essay on the “Shaking Palsy,” Parkinson outlined a clinical syndrome in which he described involuntary tremulous motion with lessened muscular power in parts not in action, even when supported; a propensity to bend the trunk forward, and to pass from a walking to a running pace, with the individuals’ senses and intellects remaining uninjured. Building on this historic clinical presentation of PD, researchers have continued to broaden the understanding of the motor and nonmotor characteristics of the disease as well as added pathological definitions. As a result, therapies have been designed that are reliable and effective and can be used as part of the diagnostic ...

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